Tips And Tricks On How To Easily Find The Best Stairlift Repair Contractor In The City

The greater part of individuals will discover that they have to employ a temporary worker eventually. Be extra careful since a group of local stairlift service contractors might take shortcuts, particularly if you want your work to be done rapidly and inexpensively. Take after the means underneath keeping in mind the end goal to streamline the way toward locating a dependable temporary worker.

Your community will have its own set of building codes and regulations that must be followed. Ask the contractual workers you’re meeting questions concerning these controls with a particular end goal to discover their level of learning. In the event that the contractual worker is present on the rules, then it’s going to be a great deal less demanding to finish a vocation rapidly. Defy the legally binding laborer with some made-up situations with conceivable difficulties and decide how he would respond to all one.

You have every right to expect a prospective stairlift service contractor to have the ability to provide an accurate cost estimate in advance of starting any work on your project. Once the contractual worker has been given a nitty gritty portrayal of the employment, they should have the capacity to make a strong evaluation. Should things go south, a verbal estimate will have little meaning so be sure to have one in writing before accepting any work. After supplying your mobility service provider with all the necessary info about the project, he should be in a position to provide you with an estimate and if he claims that he can’t then you should not accept his work.

Although you might be suspicious of a very low quote coming in from a licensed stairlift service contractor, it doesn’t always mean that he will do a sub-standard job. First, determine the cost of the materials necessary to complete the job and compare them to the cost of materials given on the bid. Do not forget to also calculate in the expenditures for labor work. Hire the contractor only if the two estimates, his and yours, are in reasonable alignment.

The way toward finding a great contractual worker is one that cannot be hurried. Check with friends, family, and co-workers for recommendations. You should also consider becoming a part of renovation conventions in order to search for qualified stairlift service contractors. Having the capacity to locate a good contractual worker will depend on upon what number of meetings you have directed.

In order for a project to be successful, you need to communicate your expectations clearly and speak with your local stairlift service contractor regularly. Handle problems calmly and quickly by practicing truthful and assertive communication. Clear communication is necessary in building working relationships that are successful. To protect yourself from potential legal disaster, take detailed notes whenever you speak with your local contractor.

The Evolution of Senior Care

Throughout history, families, both immediate and extended, have
borne the primary responsibility for taking care of their elderly, just
as they do today. Elder care institutions and organizations beyond
the home appear to have been rare before modern times.

elderly woman

Still, a few advanced societies through the ages may have recognized
a community responsibility for the elderly. One of those societies was
the Byzantine Empire. Weak and ill older citizens
were sometimes cared for in special infirmaries, called gerocomeia,
according to several researchers at National Athens University
in Greece. In the twelfth century, Emperor John II Comnenus
established the most famous of the gerocomeia in the Constantinople
monastery and hospital of the Pantocrator. In their heyday,
these forerunners of the modern nursing home operated all over
the empire, mostly in or near the monasteries. They were highly
esteemed, and the governor of the institution seems to have been
a person of real importance.

The evolution of community participation in elder care was
more complicated in many parts of the world and not such an
honored undertaking. As an example, for several centuries in
England, seniors were subject to the country’s Poor Laws, which
often left them with “a stark choice between destitution and the
workhouse.” Indeed, according to the 1901 census, more than
208,000 people were residents of workhouses in England and

German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck pioneered the recognition
of seniors as a group worthy of special protection by instituting
an old-age social insurance program in 1889. Other developed
nations followed. For instance, the 1935 passage in the United
States of the Social Security Act addressed the pressing issue of
long-term economic security for the country’s seniors—a population
whom President Franklin Roosevelt said previously may have
“spent their remaining years within the walls of a poorhouse.”
Thus, the Social Security Act may have played a major role in the
evolution in the United States of the proprietary nursing home.

Physiotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

Cognitive therapy is a structured, short-term therapy based on a thorough understanding of the specific disorder being treated and how the disorder has affected the patient. Therapists need to have in-depth knowledge of the disorder being treated and need to have basic skills in interviewing so that important and relevant symptoms and problems can be elicited from the patients. Therapists should convey to their patients that they have understood their problems and should be able to formulate the patients’ problems within the physical therapy framework.

Time limited

The therapy is time limited and comparatively brief. In routine clinical work with a depressed patient, experienced therapists will probably treat an individual for around 4 months during which they may have had around 10 to 16 appointments.
The length of therapy will of course vary depending on the disorder being treated, with some problems, such as panic attacks, requiring much briefer treatment and others, such as personality disorders, requiring longer treatment. Each session tends to last 1 hour and is structured to maximize the use of time and to target relevant problems.

dublin physio

Follows an agreed agenda

Cognitive therapists set an agenda with each patient. Each session therefore begins with a brief outline of how the session will be structured, taking into account progress with presenting problems, a review of homework and comments from the previous session. The agenda helps to keep the therapy structured and is agreed by both patient and therapist. Each problem is assessed and is defined precisely. This clarity is important as therapy aims to ameliorate the presenting problems and these are reviewed regularly and form the main focus of all sessions. On the whole, cognitive therapy deals with the here and now and is historical.

Guided discovery

One of the main characteristics of cognitive–behavioral therapy is the type of questions that are asked to elucidate and explore problems. This type of questioning has been called guided discovery. This is a series of questions designed to bring into the patient’s awareness feelings and automatic thoughts and to facilitate the promotion of alternative ways of thinking about problems and issues so that distress associated with the problem can be modified. A scientific method is used to assess and evaluate progress with problem resolution.

Experiments and homework

Patients and therapists generate hypotheses to account for the maintenance of problems. From these hypotheses, experiments are devised and carried out and the results evaluated to find out if the problem has ameliorated. Often these quasi- experiments are carried out as homework tasks. Homework tasks are designed for several purposes, such as collecting data about problems, experimenting with changes in behaviour (experiments), and practising cognitive techniques to capture and modify automatic thoughts and beliefs.

Cognitive formulation

The patient’s problems are described in a cognitive formulation – a working hypothesis that ties together the problems, thoughts and feelings and hypothesized underlying beliefs within the cognitive model. Therapists should be able from the formulation to provide a possible explanation as to why problems may have arisen and are maintained. Although the main work of therapy is largely historical, the formulation is likely to use historical data gathered during the assessment period of therapy. The formulation should be shared with the patient to aid collaboration and understanding.

Specific therapeutic techniques

Specific cognitive and behavioural techniques will vary according to the problem or disorder being treated and the specific problems that the patient presents in therapy. Chapters on specific problems or disorders are included in this book, illustrating how cognitive therapy and the cognitive model have been adapted.

Strength Training – Going Strong After 50

You already know that strength training is the best way to build larger and stronger muscles. You have undoubtedly seen bodybuilders on magazine covers and heard football commentators report on the amount of weight key players can bench press. You may also be aware that lifting weights is an important component of athletic conditioning programs. In fact, you may have done some strength training as a sport team participant.
You may think, however, that only young or athletic individuals should use strength­ training equipment. Indeed, many people tell us they feel that way. They pass by the strength ­training facility and wish that they were in good enough shape to use the exercise equipment. But they need to understand that you don’t get strong in order to do strength ­training exercises—you do strength­ training exercises to get strong.
Then again, you may be a seasoned strength trainer who has read muscle ­building magazines and accumulated dozens of barbell plates. Although you know a lot about strength­ training exercises, you should consider the needs of an older musculo skeletal system that is still responsive, yet more susceptible to overuse effects and training injuries. The exercise programs we’ll present in this book provide both a safe and time­ efficient approach to strength fitness. In fact, many committed strength­ training exercisers have switched to our program because it produces excellent results, requires less training time, and carries a low risk of injury.
You may have heard that strength training is bad for your heart and raises your blood pressure, but that is most unlikely. In fact, research conducted at Johns Hopkins University reveals that sensible strength ­training exercises are beneficial for cardiac rehabilitation patients and studies at the University of California show that properly performed strength training may actually reduce resting blood pressure.
Perhaps you are already overweight and fear that strength training will make you even heavier. Not so. Study after study has shown that strength ­training exercises simultaneously increase muscle and decrease fat, resulting in a lower body weight and a healthier body composition.
Of course, it could be that you are simply too old to benefit from strength training . . . but don’t count on it. Research with 60­, 70­, and 80­year­old men and women has demonstrated many physical improvements from a basic program of strength­ training exercises. In fact, the Journal of the American Medical Association has reported significant gains in muscle strength and physical function in 90­ year­ olds who do strength training exercises! As Dr. William Evans, one of the leading researchers on exercise and aging says, ”You’re never too old to exercise, but you’re probably too old not to exercise.”
Most likely, what you haven’t heard about strength training is far more important and accurate than what you have heard. For starters, strength training can prevent the otherwise inevitable loss of muscle and reduction in metabolic rate that accompany the aging process. But what if you have already experienced significant muscle loss and metabolic slow­down? Good news! No matter what your age, you can replace muscle tissue and speed up your metabolism through regular strength training.

Hot Water And Oil Boiler System

The Hot Water System

As with cold water systems, there are two basic types of hot water system. In one, the water is heated and stored ready for use, while in the other it is heated as it is required.
Storage systems Cold water is supplied (usually from the loft storage tank) to a copper cylinder, where it is heated and is then piped on to feed the hot taps around the house. The heating may be by means of an electric immersion heater set in the top of the cylinder, or else by a separate boiler. On older direct systems, water flows from the cylinder to the oil boiler service and back again, usually relying on gravity for its circulation (warm water is lighter than cold water and so rises and drives the water round the system).
The cold supply pipe and the feed to the boiler are connected near the base of the cylinder, and the boiler return pipe is connected near the top. The hot water take-off is from the domed top of the cylinder, and a vent or warning pipe runs up to the loft where it discharges over the cold water tank in the event of the system overheating. This system is not used nowadays because the constant intake of fresh water causes serious scale build-up within the boiler and cylinder.
On indirect systems, there is a copper coil inside the cylinder through which circulates water heated by the boiler. The water in the cylinder is heated indirectly by the hot water in the coil; the two never mix so scale build-up in the boiler and coil is minimal. It still occurs on the outside of the coil, but this is less of a problem except in areas with extremely hard water.
Such a system has an additional cold tank in the loft — the feed-and-expansion tank mentioned earlier. Where the boiler also supplies the central heating system, the circuit to the cylinder may rely on gravity for circulation, but on newer systems it is usually pumped.
Instantaneous systems Where it is not feasible to have a cold water storage tank or hot cylinder (typically in flats), some form of instantaneous water heating is usually provided. This may be a gas-fired multi-point water heater (supplying hot water only) or a combination boiler which also supplies the central heating.


Heating Systems

Mention has already been made of boilers supplying central heating as well as hot water, and the vast majority of homes with central heating have this type of system. The circulation from boiler to radiators is driven by a pump, and on more sophisticated systems, motorized valves control the distribution of hot water to the hot cylinder or the radiators as directed by the system controls.

Waste Water Systems

Getting rid of all the waste water a house produces is generally much simpler than supplying it in the first place since you can rely on gravity to do the job for you.
Two-pipe waste system These are generally found in older homes. Here the
WC waste runs to a large-diameter soil pipe which runs down the outside wall of the house and which is connected directly to the underground drains at a manhole or inspection chamber. The soil pipe also runs up to roof level, where it is vented to the open air.
Waste water from other upstairs appliances runs to a hopper mounted on the outside of the house wall. It then goes via a downpipe to a gully at ground level and on to the drains via a separate underground pipe. Waste water from downstairs goes direct to an open gully and then via another branch to the drains. Rain-water downpipes often also discharge into the same drains.
Single-stack waste system These are found in newer homes. Here a single soil pipe collects waste from all the water-using appliances in the house and takes it direct to the underground drains. This soil pipe is again usually vented to the open air at roof level, but may be capped inside the house with a special pressure relief valve in certain circumstances. There may also be gullies at ground level to take waste from appliances remote from the soil stack, but the waste pipes discharge into them below the level of a gully grid instead of over it. Rain-water down-pipes are no longer connected to the foul-water drains, but run either to separate surface-water drains or to soak-aways.
The twin advantages of this single-stack system are that all the pipework can be concealed within the house, and that it does away with open discharges at gullies and hoppers which lead to smells and blockages. However, they must be designed carefully if they are to work properly, and there are strict rules about where connections can be made into them.
The most important feature of any waste water system is that it must not allow drain smells to enter the house through the waste pipes. All waste systems do this by having water-filled traps connected to every water-using appliance for built in in the case of WC pans), and these are designed so that they retain the water seal as the appliance is emptied. On modern single-stack systems the trap should always be the deep-seal type, with a water depth of 75mm (3in).
The soil pipe and any branch pipes from gullies run underground from the house and link up at a manhole. This will
be a brick-built chamber on older properties, or a smaller plastic one on newer ones. From there a single drain carries the combined wastes to the main sewer, which generally runs beneath the road next to the property. Additional manholes are provided wherever the drain run changes direction, and on older properties the final manhole may contain a trap and a capped-off rodding eye — this is known as an interceptor trap, and is designed to prevent sewer gases and rats from entering the system. Such a trap is not needed on modern drainage systems.
A few rural properties remote from mains drainage may have a cesspool or septic tank to dispose of waste water. A cesspool is just a watertight underground chamber which retains sewage and waste water until it can be pumped out and disposed of by a special tanker — a job that has to be carried out regularly. A septic tank is in effect a miniature sewage works, encouraging the decomposition of stored sewage through the action of anaerobic bacteria so that harmless effluent can then be discharged safely into a stream, ditch or land drain.

Beautiful And Stylish Maternity Swimsuit Options

Wearing the ideal swimsuit, one which is comfortable and stylish, is always something you want to have for days spent at the beach. It is always important to locate a swimsuit that works the best for your body and style, whether you are wanting to take a break from the cold winter weather and are headed to the tropics, or are getting a head start on shopping for your swimsuit for next summer. Swimming is a great type of exercise to do when you are pregnant, so finding an ideal maternity swimsuit is also very important. There are numerous different styles available to choose from, so make sure you select one that works the best for your lifestyle and personal taste.

Excellent Maternity Swimwear Bikinis

designer swimsuitsWhen you are pregnant, is it important to find a swimsuit that is both comfortable and stylish to wear at the beach. Whether you are trying to get out of the chilly winter weather for a while and planning to spend some time at a tropic location, or are just trying to shop for your swimsuit early in anticipation of the upcoming summer season, it is very important to find the right maternity swimsuit that will fit your body and sense of style. Fortunately, there are many styles to choose from, so it shouldn’t be too hard to find one meets your personal taste and fits your body well.

Maternity bikinis are more popular than ever. They can be a good option to consider since there is plenty of room for your baby bump to expand. Celebrities like Alicia Keys and Alanis Morisette have been spotted wearing a sexy and cute maternity bikini. So it can be a great choice if you don’t mind showing some skin.

The Dot Biknii designed by Prego, the renowned maternity designer, is one stylish option. It is available in brown and black. This swimsuit is adorable and comes with a padded adjustable halter top. This enables it to fit your body perfectly. The plastic rectangular centerpiece adds a stylish touch, and the small polka dot design is very eye catching.

If you like wearing a bikini, but you would like to have your lower half covered a bit more, then a great option for you is the Maternity Kona Skirted Bikini by Prego. There is a short skirt that has been added on to the bottom, which provides you with some extra coverage over your thighs. It features a standout and beautiful design of brown and turquoise. A great neckline is created by the plastic centerpiece located on the bust. There are many excellent maternity bikini options available for you to choose from, and they all have their own unique touches to them.

If bikinis bare too much skin for your sense of style, then another popular option you can consider is the tankini. A tankini has a two-piece design, but provides more coverage over the back and stomach. A separate bikini bottom is worn under your baby bump. This allows it to fit during your entire pregnancy. There are numerous different maternity tankinis that are available, with each one having a slightly different design.

One of this season’s top sellers is Jenni by Maternal America, a consistently fashionable designer. The maternity tankini combines fiery and bright fabric with practicality of side-tie bikini

bottoms and adjustable halter tops. Wearing this beautiful swimsuit, you are sure to be one of the standouts, whether you are by the pool or at the beach.designer swimwear

If you are nursing or want a swimsuit that is designed to be worn both while you are pregnant and during the post-partum phase, a great option is Belabumbum’s Nursing Swimwear Tankini. This is a very versatile swimsuit. It has been designed to provide easy access for nursing underneath the empire waist tie. It is available in classic black and hot pink, and its style and practicality will both serve you well during your entire pregnancy and beyond. With so many tankinis to choose from, you can be sure you will find the ideal maternity swimsuit for you.

Whichever maternity swimsuit you select, you will want to have a stylish cover-up to go with for a day spent by the pool or at the beach. A cover-up furnishes you with an easy and quick option for making the transition from your house to the beach. You can also easily wear it while running a couple of errands. Practical and stylish, a cover-up is a nice addition to your beach side or pool wardrobe. One very nice choice is Maternal America’s Tunic Swimsuit Cover-Up. It is available in black and white, and features a very flattering empire waist design. Its soft, stretchy cotton is lightweight and breathable, making it ideal for those days spent at the beach. A cover-up is definitely a must have!

There are so many different swimwear options for expectant mothers to choose from, whether you want a tankini or bikini. Consider practicality, your personal style and comfort in mind, and you are sure to find an excellent option for summer days spent at the pool or for your winter vacation.

What To Do When Your Work Overalls Split

Fibers are the basic components of textile fabrics. Every skilled tailor should know this information.
Each type of fiber has unique characteristics that it imparts to fabrics made from it. Although a fiber’s character can be altered by yarn structure and by fabric construction and finish, the original characteristics are still evident in the resulting fabric and are central to its use and care.
Before the twentieth century, all fibers used for cloth were from natural sources such as the cotton plant. In the twentieth century, a host of synthetic fibers appeared on the market, products of the chemical industry. The term “man-made” refers to all fibers not found naturally; it covers both synthetic fibers (made from chemicals such as petroleum) and fibers such as rayon, made in the laboratory from cellulose, a natural product. Whether a fiber is natural or manmade has some bearing on its general characteristics. Natural fibers — plant fibers Cotton is strong even when wet, absorbent, shrinks unless treated, creases, and is comfortable to wear. Most cottons can be laundered, colorfast ones in hot water, others in warm or cold water, and dried in the clothes dryer or ironed while damp. Cotton can be mercerized to make it smoother, shinier, and stronger. Some is pre-treated to give it easy-care qualities.
Linen, made from flax, is very strong and absorbent, creases unless treated, and is very comfortable in hot weather. It should be washed at lower temperatures to minimize shrinkage. Pre-shrunk linen can be washed in hot water. When used for tailored garments, it should be dry-cleaned.
Ramie is not as strong as linen but increases in strength when wet. It is highly absorbent and wrinkles easily. It can be dry-cleaned or laundered, depending on the care instructions. It tolerates hot water and its smooth lustrous appearance improves with washing. Animal fibers
Wool comes from the fleece of sheep (labeled lambs-wool, cool wool, merino wool, pure wool) and from the hair of other animals such as camels, goats
(mohair, cashmere and cashgora), alpacas, llamas and vicunas, and angora rabbits. Wool is durable, highly absorbent, crease resistant, and holds in body heat well. Wool should be dry-cleaned or washed in cool water up to 86 °F (30 °C). Some wools can be machine-washed. Never dry in the clothes-dryer.
Press at a low temperature using a damp cloth.
Silk, produced by the silk-worm, is strong, absorbent, crease resistant, and holds in body heat. It should be either dry-cleaned or washed by hand. Iron a silk garment inside-out at a low temperature setting. Man-made fibers — cellulose and chemical fibers Rayon or viscose is relatively weak, very absorbent, shrinks, and wrinkles unless treated. Sometimes it should be dry-cleaned, sometimes it can be machine-washed on the delicate cycle. Iron at a moderate setting using steam or a damp cloth.
Acetate is lustrous, moderately absorbent, wrinkles somewhat, holds body heat, and is heat-sensitive. Wash by hand or using the delicate cycle of the washing machine. Do not dry in the clothes-dryer. Iron all acetates at synthetic setting; they melt at high heat.
Acrylic fiber is fluffy but absorbs water poorly. Acrylic resists wrinkles, is heat-sensitive, and holds in body heat. It is popular in blends with wool and cotton. Wash at 86 °F (30 °C). Iron at a low setting.
Nylon is very strong, has a low absorbency, holds in body heat, and resists wrinkling. It does not shrink. Wash either by hand or machine-wash using the delicate cycle. Iron at a low temperature without steam.
Polyester is strong, not very absorbent, keeps its shape well, and wrinkles little. Holds creases well. Wash by machine or by hand. Spin very lightly or drip dry. May need little or no ironing; use low setting.
Microfibers (mainly polyester) are soft, strong, water-resistant, and breathe well. Machine-washable. Care symbols
The care symbols shown at right are those commonly used on clothes labels. If you are unsure of the meaning of a symbol, consult your dry-cleaner or tailor.

Should our business use group buying channels?

Group buying started in 1977 when the Home Shopping Network was founded after 112 electric can openers were sold on a Florida radio station programme.
A group buying channel can be useful if your business:
• Wants to move excess or old stock;
• If an SEO company wants to rank a website in Dublin.
• Is a venue such as a hotel or spa and wants to fill ‘quiet times’;
Group buying is fraught with challenges and has created difficulties for numerous small businesses. These include the cupcake bakery Need a Cake, which offered a 75% discount on 12 cupcakes, which normally cost $30, and underestimated the response, resulting in an extra 8,500 customers and a €15,000 loss, or Posies Cafe, which lost nearly $8,000 with its Groupon campaign and had to use personal savings to cover payroll and rent.
You should only use group buying if you:
• Have the time to manage the process;
• Can get your staff to support the deal;
• Don’t need instant cashflow as you often have to wait for some weeks or until the deal is completely finished (which could take some months) before you get your income;
• Are good at negotiating with commission-based sales people who work for the group buying companies.
Critical factors that affect group buying are:
Customer retention: Group buying customers often are deal-hunters, so they go from place to place depending on a deal, and are not always seeking a long-term solution;
• Local access: The offer must be locally-based to achieve conversion rates – for example, ‘Dublin spa offers 2 for 1 on Monday’;
• Consumer trust: People are naturally suspicious if an offer looks too good to be true. Be specific about your terms and conditions and ensure the customer has read these before they pay.
To explore group buying further, look at, and to explore which of your competitors have signed up to sell offers in this way.

The Cold Water Supply

From the rising main stoptap, the main cold supply pipe rises up through the house (which is why this stoptap is so named). Installation of a stop is a job for a qualified plumber. A branch pipe is always connected to the rising main to supply the kitchen cold tap with a pure supply of water for drinking and cooking purposes. There may also be branches off this pipe serving a washing machine or dishwasher.
Indirect systems In the majority of homes the rising main then continues upwards to supply a cold water storage tank in the loft or in an upstairs cupboard. The flow of water into this tank is controlled by a ball valve. As water is drawn off, the valve’s float arm drops which opens up the valve to admit more water. The valve closes again when the tank is Filled to the correct level.
This tank then supplies cold water to the rest of the house. Normally there will be two feed pipes running from near the base of the tank; one will supply all the cold taps (except the kitchen) and also WC cisterns. The other will supply cold water to the hot water cylinder. Both pipes should be Fitted with an on/off control called a gate valve, which allows the feed to be isolated if necessary.
If the house has a conventional ‘wet’ central heating system with water-filled radiators, there will be a second, smaller tank in the loft which is supplied by a pipe which branches off the rising main and again which is fitted with a ball valve. This is the heating system’s feed-and-expansion tank. Its purpose is to accommodate the expansion in the system’s water content as it heats up, and also to replace any losses from the system should they occur. There should be a stoptap on its
WATER SUPPLY BY-LAWS The water supply to every home is subject to the various provisions of the water supply bylaws. These exist to prevent waste, undue consumption, misuse or contamination of the water supply. Under the by-laws, you are obliged by law to give five working days’ notice to your water authority if you propose to install or alter (as opposed to repair or replace):
• a bidet
• a flushing cistern
• a tap to which a hose may be connected
• any fitting through which
contamination by back-siphonage could occur
In Ireland you must give notice if you propose to install or alter any water fitting.
Notice must also be given if you intend to bury a supply pipe underground or embed it in a solid wall or floor
Plumbing, Heating and Waste Systems
branch supply pipe to enable you to turn off its water supply if necessary.
Direct systems – Some homes have a direct cold water supply, with branches to taps and WC cisterns taken directly from the rising main. Hot water may be supplied by a multi-point water heater, by a conventional hot cylinder containing an immersion heater, or by a gas or electric storage water heater. Alternatively, there may be a full-scale central heating system which also supplies hot water via a hot cylinder.
Direct plumbing systems may be easier and cheaper to install, but most water authorities prefer indirect systems (and nowadays may not allow direct ones to be
installed). One of the main reasons for this is that indirect systems make it very difficult for the mains supply to be contaminated by back-siphonage of dirty water if there is a drop in mains water pressure. This subject is very much to the fore in the current water supply by-laws, and which will be mentioned at intervals throughout this book. Indirect systems are also convenient for the householder, because they guarantee a supply of stored water in the event of an interruption in the mains supply, and they are also quieter in operation than mains-fed systems.